Beginning on the 2-year anniversary of the revolt that ultimately led to Mubarak stepping down, hundreds of thousands of protestors take to the streets in protests against Morsi. Clashes erupt in numerous places around Egypt.
January 1, 2013
Protests rage for weeks
In a continuation of protests on January 25, protests rage on throughout the months of February and March in Port Said and other cities leaving dozens dead in clashes.
February 1, 2013
Christian Cathedral Attacked
As Christians hold a funeral at the main cathedral of the Coptic Orthodox Church and hold a protest over four Christians killed the day before in sectarian violence, a Muslim mob attacks the main cathedral. Morsi is publicly blamed by Pope Tawadros II for failing to protect the building.
April 7, 2013
Mob Beats Four Shiites
In a village located in the outskirts of Cairo, four Egyptian Shiites are beat to death by a mob.
June 23, 2013
Morsi Demanded to Step Down
On his first anniversary in office, millions of Egyptians call forMorsi to step down as huge demonstrations against his rule begins. Outside the Muslim Brotherhood’s Cairo headquarters, eight people are killed in clashes.
June 30, 2013
Military Gives Ultimatum
As huge demonstration against Morsi continue, Egypt’s powerful military issues and ultimatum to Morsi and the opposition giving them 48 hours to resolve their disputes. Military promises it will impose its own solution if the disputes cannot be resolved.
July 1, 2013
Military Announces Plan
Stating that if no agreement is reached, the military discloses their plans to replace Morsi with an interim administration, cancel the Islamist-based constitution, and call for new elections in one year. In staunch opposition during a late-night speech, Morsi vows not to step down as president and promises to defend his legitimacy as president.
July 2, 2013
Morsi Deposed by Military
The military chief in Egypt announces that Morsi has been deposed and that Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court will serve as interim president until new presidential elections can be held. While tens of thousands Morsi supporters in Cairo remain camped out in mass sit-ins, numerous Muslim Brotherhood leaders are arrested.
July 3, 2013
Interim President Sworn-in
Adly Mansour, Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court, is sworn in as interim president of Egypt.
July 4, 2013
Morsi Supporters Protest
As Morsi supporters demand his return, Mansour dissolves the Islamist-dominated upper house of parliament. Brotherhoodstrongman, deputy head Khairat el-Shater, is arrested and at least 36 people are dead due to violence in Cairo and Alexandria as a result of clashes between pro- and anti-Moris groups.
July 5, 2013
Time Set for New Elections
Mansour announces a timeline for amending the constitution as well as for elections for a new president and military by mid-February. The Muslim Brotherhood announces their refusal to participate in the process. More than 50 people are killed when Egyptian soldiers open fire on a pro-Morsi demonstration in front of a Cairo military base.
July 8, 2013
Prime Minister, VP Appointed
With a military announcement backing up the announcement made by Mansour, economist Hazem el-Beblawi is appointed as prime minister and opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei is appointed vice president.
July 9, 2013
More Protests for Mandate
After Egypt’s military chief calls for protestors to give him a mandate to stop “potential terrorism” by supporters of Morsi, millions of protestors pour onto the streets of Egypt leaving five people dead in clashes. Morsi is under investigation by prosecutors for numerous allegations including murder and conspiracy with Hamas, the Palestinian militant group.
July 26, 2013
Eighty Dead in Clash
Morsi supporters in a major sit-in in Cairo clash with security forces and armed, civilian-clothed men leaving at least 80 people dead.
July 27, 2013
Diplomatic Efforts Failed
Mansour announces that diplomatic efforts between the interim leadership, backed by the Egyptian military, and the Muslim Brotherhood to peacefully resolve the standoff have failed.
August 7, 2013
Besiege of Sit-ins Announced
The two sit-ins in Cairo are set to be besieged within 24 hours by Egyptian security forces to prevent people from entering.
August 11, 2013
After the sit-ins are reinforced with thousands of protestors, plans to besiege the sit-ins are postponed by authorities wanting to avoid bloodshed.
August 12, 2013
State of Emergency Declared
Killing at least 638 people, armoured vehicles and bulldozers backing riot police clear the two sprawling encampments of Morsi supporters. Mohamed ElBaradei, vice president, resigns in protest over the assaults and a monthlong state of emergency is declared across the nation by the presidency.
August 14, 2013
Deadly Force Authorized
In retaliation against the crackdown on their sit-in encampments, Islamists torch government buildings, churches and police stations prompting the Interior Ministry to authorize police to use deadly force against protestors that target police and state institutions.
August 15, 2013
Fierce Street Battles Occur
Clashes lead to the deaths of 173 people, including a police officer, nationwide as the fiercest street battles to engulf Cairo since Egypt’s Arab Spring uprising occur as Muslim Brotherhood supporters clash with armed vigilantes.
August 16, 2013
Authorities Consider Disband/div>
Protestors supporting Morsi that barricaded themselves inside a mosque are raided by security forces in Cairo while authorities in Egypt consider disbanding the Muslim Brotherhood.
August 17, 2013
Vigilante Groups Banned
In recent weeks, civilian “people’s committees” have been on the streets of Egypt armed with clubs, sticks, and guns. These groups have been banned by Egypt’s government stating that they would not tolerate civilian violence.
August 19, 2013
Timeline of 2013 Events in the Overthrow of Morsi and its Aftermath
Austin junior Rachel Clark watched as one American student after another left for the Cairo International Airport.
On June 1, a little more than a month before Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi was deposed, Clark arrived in Cairo to take two six-week classes, Egyptian Politics and Government and Arab Society. Originally, she was supposed to stay for eight weeks. Because of the turmoil of Morsi being removed from office, Clark was forced to leave three weeks early.
“I knew there would be some protest and there would be violence, but I wasn’t expecting a full-on revolution,” Clark said. “I didn’t even find out about the revolution until the day we got there when we saw graffiti about it.”
Clark said she enjoyed the time she had in Egypt. She got to go to museums in Cairo and experience the culture in marketplaces and visit various sights such as the Pyramids.
“I really wanted to stay,” Clark said. “I was planning trips with my friends like once we’re off lockdown we can go to Alexandria or the Red Sea, but that ended shortly.”
These plans never came to fruition. Toward the end of June, multiple administrators and professors started contacting Clark. Word of protests against Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi had made the news and they emailed to check on her status. From then on, Clark was in contact with someone from Baylor every day, sometimes multiple times a day.
“They were very kind, gracious and patient,” Clark said. “They could tell there were times when I was freaking out.”
These times of unease were not constant for Clark. She was staying on Zamalek, a small island in the middle of Cairo. Though the island is about half a mile away from Tahrir Square, the central point of the riots, the conflict did not reach the bridge to Zamalek until after Clark left.
“The island that I was on, if there was no media, you would have never known the protest was going on,” Clark said. “It’s like a little international community so I felt safe there unless I went out.”
The tension built as protests turned into a revolution. On the first day of July, eight people had been killed in riots around the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo.
“I had a lot of comments from my aunts and uncles like ‘get the hell out of dodge, leave right now,’” Clark said. “I left in good timing because the day after I came back the protest and fighting had moved onto the bridge that lead to Zamalek, so I would have been trapped there. “
The riots were not the only cause for unease. An anti-American sentiment began to grow in the midst of this chaos.
“People were blaming America for their problems and saying America was working with Morsi,” Clark said. “Some of my friends there were posting hateful statuses so that was making me a little uneasy.”
Students were given warnings of what places to avoid. Clark said she felt safe most of the time, but there were nagging thoughts in the back of her mind.
“They say to avoid small mosques because those are the mosques where they spread really ridiculous statements, so when I would go down a street and see one, I’d think ‘I should maybe go down another street,’” Clark said. “That sounds terrible because I know a lot of them would be safe, but you start thinking what if this person does this.”
In spite of nearby casualties, study abroad students from varying universities remained in Cairo. However, by July 3, the State Department sent out a warning for all Americans to evacuate Egypt. Clark received this notice an hour after Baylor contacted her telling her it was no longer safe. Upon her arrival at the airport, she boarded a Lufthansa flight leaving Egypt. Rachel said she thought the pilot must have been nervous, as he left thirty minutes early.
“I left within thirty hours of when I got the notice to leave,” Clark said.
The sudden departure left Clark with a lack of closure. She said she enjoyed her time in Egypt and was disappointed when she had to leave three weeks earlier than planned. She said she hopes to return someday.
“I miss my friends,” Clark said. “I did not get a proper goodbye to Egypt.”
Clark was not the first Baylor student to be evacuated from Cairo while studying abroad. In 2011, two students studying in the same location had to leave. However, Randy Penson, the associate director of the Center for International Education, said it is rare for students to be in that situation. In situations like this, Penson, joined by Naymond Keathley, the Interim Director of Center for International Education, and various other faculty stay in contact with the student and keep a close eye on the news. Should a student ever convey discomfort, they would take action to place that student in a safe place.
“I think at any point, if she felt uncomfortable we would have probably moved even quicker,” Penson said. “She was very calm and didn’t seem nervous at all.”
Penson said the study abroad trip to Cairo for the fall has been canceled and he is unsure when they will resume allowing students to study in Egypt.
According to the Associated Press, terror leader Moktar Belmoktar announce last Thursday that he is joining forces with a Mali-based jihadist group and has promised support Islamists in Egypt. It is also estimated that 42 churches in Egypt have been attacked by supporters of Morsi. The violence continued when on Aug. 14, the police cleared two protest camps set up by Morsi’s supporters. This ignited nationwide violence that reportedly left hundreds dead and thousands injured.